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  • 제목: 영어 때문에 울고잇나요 관심글
  • 작성자: qbteacher 작성일: 01-08-2018 조회: 201 지역: LA
  • 영어 때문에 울어본적이 있나요?


    ESL 칼리지 과정을 몇년씩 돌아다녀도 좀처럼 해결되지 않아서 울고잇는 분 중에서 몇분을 선택해서 집중훈련을 할려고합니다. 가능한 학생이나 젊은직장인이나 한국에서 새로오신분들을 우선합니다. 선택되신분은 무료개인교습도 가능합니다.


     


     


    영어엔 영어의 고유의 법칙과 포뮬러가 잇습니다. 이것이 아래 공부내용에 나열되어 잇습니다.


    이것을 이해하지못하면, 백년을 노력해도 좀처럼 아카데믹 영어와는 거리가 멉니다. 



    인류가 쌓아둔 위대한 지식들은 대부분 영어라는 문자로 축적되어잇으며 이것의 방법을 빨리얻는자가 부귀와 건강과 장수를 누립니다.


     


    아래는 공부할 주제들의 요약입니다. 이런것을 완전히 자기두되에 축척하여, 인생의 지식자산의 기본을 마련할 준비가 되신분을 환영합니다.


    (이부분은 절대로 이해하신분만을 환영합니다)


     


    아래를 몇번읽어 보십시요.


    그리고, 마지막부분의 안내를 따르십시요.


     


     


    Azar Grammar Series


    Basic English Grammar, Third Edition


    Contents


    Chapter 1 USING BE


    1-1 NOUN + IS + NOUN: SINGULAR


    1-2 NOUN + ARE + NOUN: PLURAL


    1-3 PRONOUN + BE + NOUN


    1-4 CONTRACTIONS WITH BE


    1-5 NEGATIVE WITH BE


    1-6 BE + ADJECTIVE


    1-7 BE + A PLACE


    1-8 SUMMARY: BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS WITH BE


    Chapter 2 USING BE AND HAVE


    2-1 YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH BE


    2-2 SHORT ANSWERS TO YES/NO QUESTIONS


    2-3 QUESTIONS WITH BE: USING WHERE


    2-4 USING HAVE AND HAS


    2-5 USING MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, OUR, THEIR


    2-6 USING THIS AND THAT


    2-7 USING THESE AND THOSE


    2-8 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WHAT AND WHO BE


    Chapter 3 USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT


    3-1 FORM AND BASIC MEANING OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


    3-2 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS: ALWAYS, USUALLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES, SELDOM, RARELY, NEVER


    3-3 OTHER FREQUENCY EXPRESSIONS


    3-4 USING FREQUENCY ADVERBS WITH BE


    3-5 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -ES


    3-6 ADDING FINAL -S/-ES TO WORDS THAT END IN -Y


    3-7 IRREGULAR SINGULAR VERBS: HAS, DOES, GOES


    3-8 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -S / -ES


    3-9 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: NEGATIVE


    3-10 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: YES/NO QUESTIONS


    3-11 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH WHERE


    3-12 THE SIMPLE PRESENT: ASKING INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH WHEN AND WHAT TIME


    3-13 SUMMARY: INFORMATION QUESTIONS WITH BE ANDDO


    Chapter 4 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    4-1 BE + -ING: THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


    4-2 SPELLING OF -ING


    4-3 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: NEGATIVES


    4-4 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: QUESTIONS


    4-5 THE SIMPLE PRESENT vs. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    4-6 NONACTION VERBS NOT USED IN THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    4-7 SEE, LOOK AT, WATCH, HEAR, AND LISTEN TO


    4-8 THINK ABOUT AND THINK THAT


    Chapter 5 TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT


    5-1 USING IT TO TALK ABOUT TIME


    5-2 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME


    5-3 USING IT TO TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER


    5-4 THERE + BE


    5-5 THERE + BE: YES/NO QUESTIONS


    5-6 THERE + BE: ASKING QUESTIONS WITH HOW MANY


    5-7 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE


    5-8 SOME PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: A LIST


    5-9 NEED AND WANT + A NOUN OR AN INFINITIVE


    5-10 WOULD LIKE


    5-11 WOULD LIKE vs. LIKE


    Chapter 6 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS


    6-1 NOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS


    6-2 ADJECTIVE + NOUN


    6-3 SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS


    6-4 NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL


    6-5 NOUNS: IRREGULAR PLURAL FORMS


    Chapter 7 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-1 NOUNS: COUNT AND NONCOUNT


    7-2 USING AN vs. A


    7-3 USING A/AN vs. SOME


    7-4 MEASUREMENTS WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-5 USING MANY, MUCH, A FEW, A LITTLE


    7-6 USING THE


    7-7 USING Ø (NO ARTICLE) TO MAKE GENERALIZATIONS


    7-8 USING SOME AND ANY


    Chapter 8 EXPRESSING PAST TIME, PART 1


    8-1 USING BE: PAST TIME


    8-2 PAST OF BE: NEGATIVE


    8-3 PAST OF BE: QUESTIONS


    8-4 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: USING -ED


    8-5 PAST TIME WORDS: YESTERDAY, LAST, AND AGO


    8-6 THE SIMPLE PAST: IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 1)


    8-7 THE SIMPLE PAST: NEGATIVE


    8-8 THE SIMPLE PAST: YES/NO QUESTIONS


    8-9 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 2)


    8-10 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 3)


    8-11 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 4)


    Chapter 9 EXPRESSING PAST TIME, PART 2


    9-1 THE SIMPLE PAST: USING WHERE, WHEN, WHAT TIME, AND WHY


    9-2 QUESTIONS WITH WHAT


    9-3 QUESTIONS WITH WHO


    9-4 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 5)


    9-5 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 6)


    9-6 IRREGULAR VERBS (GROUP 7)


    9-7 BEFORE AND AFTER IN TIME CLAUSES


    9-8 WHEN IN TIME CLAUSES


    9-9 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE PAST PROGRESSIVE


    9-10 USING WHILE WITH THE PAST PROGRESSIVE


    9-11 WHILE vs. WHEN IN PAST TIME CLAUSES


    9-12 SIMPLE PAST vs. PAST PROGRESSIVE


    Chapter 10 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME, PART 1


    10-1 FUTURE TIME: USING BE GOING TO


    10-2 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME


    10-3 WORDS USED FOR PAST TIME AND FUTURE TIME


    10-4 USING A COUPLE OF OR A FEW WITH AGO (PAST) AND IN (FUTURE)


    10-5 USING TODAY, TONIGHT, AND THIS + MORNING, AFTERNOON, EVENING, WEEK, MONTH, YEAR


    10-6 FUTURE TIME: USING WILL


    10-7 ASKING QUESTIONS WITH WILL


    10-8 VERB SUMMARY: PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE


    10-9 VERB SUMMARY: FORMS OF BE


    Chapter 11 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME, PART 2


    11-1 MAY/MIGHT vs. WILL


    11-2 MAYBE (ONE WORD) vs. MAY BE (TWO WORDS)


    11-3 FUTURE TIME CLAUSES WITH BEFORE, AFTER, ANDWHEN


    11-4 CLAUSES WITH IF


    11-5 EXPRESSING HABITUAL PRESENT WITH TIME CLAUSES AND IF-CLAUSES


    11-6 USING WHAT + A FORM OF DO


    Chapter 12 MODALS, PART 1: EXPRESSING ABILITY


    12-1 USING CAN


    12-2 PRONUNCIATION OF CAN AND CAN`T


    12-3 USING CAN: QUESTIONS


    12-4 USING KNOW HOW TO


    12-5 USING COULD: PAST OF CAN


    12-6 USING BE ABLE TO


    12-7 USING VERY AND TOO + ADJECTIVE


    12-8 USING TWO, TOO, AND TO


    12-9 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: AT AND IN FOR LOCATIONS


    Chapter 13 MODALS, PART 2: ADVICE, NECESSITY, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS


    13-1 USING SHOULD


    13-2 USING HAVE + INFINITIVE (HAVE TO/HAS TO)


    13-3 USING MUST


    13-4 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, AND CAN I


    13-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: COULD YOU AND WOULD YOU


    13-6 IMPERATIVE SENTENCES


    13-7 MODAL AUXILIARIES


    13-8 SUMMARY CHART: MODAL AUXILIARIES


    13-9 USING LET`S


    Chapter 14 NOUNS AND MODIFIERS


    14-1 MODIFYING NOUNS WITH ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS


    14-2 WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES


    14-3 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ALL OF, MOST OF, SOME OF, ALMOST ALL OF


    14-4 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT


    14-5 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE OF, NONE OF


    14-6 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: NOTHING AND NO ONE


    14-7 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOMETHING, SOMEONE, ANYTHING, ANYONE


    14-8 USING EVERY


    14-9 LINKING VERBS + ADJECTIVES


    14-10 ADJECTIVES + ADVERBS


    Chapter 15 POSSESSIVES


    15-1 POSSESSIVE NOUNS


    15-2 POSSESSIVE: IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS


    15-3 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS, OURS, THEIRS


    15-4 QUESTIONS WITH WHOSE


    Chapter 16 MAKING COMPARISONS


    16-1 COMPARISONS: USING THE SAME (AS), SIMILAR (TO), AND DIFFERENT FROM


    16-2 COMPARISONS: USING LIKE AND ALIKE


    16-3 THE COMPARATIVE: USING -ER AND MORE


    16-4 THE SUPERLATIVE: USING -EST AND MOST


    16-5 USING ONE OF + SUPERLATIVE + PLURAL NOUN


    16-6 USING BUT


    16-7 USING VERBS AFTER BUT


    16-8 MAKING COMPARISONS WITH ADVERBS


    APPENDIX IRREGULAR VERBS


    LISTENING SCRIPT


    CD TRACKING SCRIPT


    ANSWER KEY


    INDEX


     


     


     


    Azar Grammar Series


    Fundamentals of English Grammar, Fourth Edition


    Contents


    CHAPTER 1 PRESENT TIME


    1-1 SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    1-2 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    1-3 FREQUENCY ADVERBS


    1-4 SINGULAR/PLURAL


    1-5 SPELLING OF FINAL -S/-ES


    1-6 NON-ACTION VERBS


    1-7 PRESENT VERBS: SHORT ANSWERS TO YES/NO


    QUESTIONS


    CHAPTER 2 PAST TIME


    2-1 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST


    2-2 SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS


    2-3 THE PRINCIPLE PARTS OF A VERB


    2-4 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST


    2-5 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF -EDENDINGS


    2-6 SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE


    2-7 EXPRESSING PAST TIME: USING TIME CLAUSES


    2-8 EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO


    CHAPTER 3 FUTURE TIME


    3-1 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME:BE GOING TO AND WILL


    3-2 FORMS WITH BE GOING TO


    3-3 FORMS WITH WILL


    3-4 CERTAINTY ABOUT THE FUTURE


    3-5 BE GOING TO VS. WILL


    3-6 EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME IN TIME CLAUSES AND IF-CLAUSES


    3-7 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME


    3-8 USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT


    TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME


    3-9 IMMEDIATE FUTURE: USING BE ABOUT TO


    3-10 PARALLEL VERBS


    CHAPTER 4 THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT


    4-1 PAST PARTICIPLE


    4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR


    4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWER FORMS


    4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME


    4-5 SIMPLE PAST VS. PRESENT PERFECT


    4-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


    4-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE VS. PRESENT PERFECT


    4-8 PAST PERFECT


    CHAPTER 5 ASKING QUESTIONS


    5-1 YES/NO QUESTIONS AND SHORT ANSWERS


    5-2 YES/NO QUESTIONS AND INFORMATION QUESTIONS


    5-3 WHERE, WHY, WHEN, WHAT TIME, HOW COME, WHAT . . .FOR


    5-4 QUESTIONS WITH WHO, WHO(M), AND WHAT


    5-5 USING WHAT + A FORM OF DO


    5-6 USING WHICH AND WHAT KIND OF


    5-7 USING WHOSE USING WHAT KIND OF


    5-8 USING HOW


    5-9 USING HOW OFTEN


    5-10 USING HOW FAR


    5-11 LENGTH OF TIME: IT + TAKE AND HOW LONG


    5-12 SPOKEN AND WRITTEN CONTRACTIONS WITH QUESTION WORDS


    5-13 MORE QUESTIONS WITH HOW


    5-14 USING HOW ABOUT AND WHAT ABOUT


    5-15 TAG QUESTIONS


    CHAPTER 6 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS


    6-1 PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS


    6-2 PRONUNCIATION OF FINAL -S/-ES


    6-3 SUBJECTS, VERBS, AND OBJECTS


    6-4 OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS


    6-5 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME


    6-6 WORD ORDER: PLACE AND TIME


    6-7 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT


    6-8 USING ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE NOUNS


    6-9 USING NOUNS AS ADJECTIVES


    6-10 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS


    6-11 POSSESSIVE NOUNS


    6-12 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


    6-13 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS


    6-14 SINGULAR FORMS OF OTHER: ANOTHER VS. THE OTHER


    6-15 PLURAL FORMS OF OTHER: OTHER(S) VS. THE OTHER(S)


    6-16 SUMMARY OF FORMS OF OTHER


    CHAPTER 7 MODAL AUXILIARIES


    7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES


    7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD


    7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT;


    EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN


    7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY


    7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I


    7-6 POLITE QUESTIONS: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU, WILL YOU, CAN YOU


    7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO


    7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER


    7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO, MUST


    7-10 EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO;


    EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT


    7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST


    7-12 TAG QUESTIONS WITH MODAL AUXILIARIES


    7-13 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE SENTENCES


    7-14 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET’S AND WHY DON’T


    7-15 STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKE…BETTER, WOULD RATHER


    CHAPTER 8 CONNECTING IDEAS


    8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND


    8-2 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BUT AND OR


    8-3 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO


    8-4 USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT


    8-5 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER


    8-6 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE


    8-7 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH


    CHAPTER 9 COMPARISONS


    9-1 MAKING COMPARISONS WITH AS … AS


    9-2 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE


    9-3 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


    9-4 COMPLETING A COMPARATIVE


    9-5 MODIFYING COMPARATIVES


    9-6 COMPARISONS WITH LESS … THAN AND NOT AS … AS


    9-7 USING MORE WITH NOUNS


    9-8 REPEATING A COMPARISON


    9-9 USING DOUBLE COMPARATIVES


    9-10 USING SUPERLATIVES


    9-11 USING THE SAME, SIMILAR, DIFFERENT, LIKE, ANDALIKE


    CHAPTER 10 THE PASSIVE


    10-1 ACTIVE SENTENCES AND PASSIVE SENTENCES


    10-2 FORM OF THE PASSIVE


    10-3 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS


    10-4 USING THE BY-PHRASE


     


    10-5 THE PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARIES


    10-6 USING PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES (NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE)


    10-7 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: -ED VS. -ING


    10-8 GET + ADJECTIVE; GET + PAST PARTICIPLE


    10-9 USING BE USED / ACCUSTOMED TO AND GET USED / GET ACCUSTOMED TO


    10-10 USED TO VS. BE USED TO


    10-11 USING BE SUPPOSED TO


    CHAPTER 11 COUNT/NONCOUNT NOUNS AND ARTICLES


    11-1 A VS. AN


    11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS


    11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS


    11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS


    11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE


    11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT


    11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS


    11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE


    11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES


    11-10 CAPITALIZATION


    CHAPTER 12 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    12-1 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION


    12-2 USING WHO AND THAT IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE


    12-3 USING OBJECT PRONOUNS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE


    12-4 USING PRONOUNS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO DESCRIBE THINGS


    12-5 SINGULAR AND PLURAL VERBS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    12-6 USING PREPOSITIONS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    12-7 USING WHOSE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    CHAPTER 13 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES


    13-1 VERB + GERUND


    13-2 GO + -ING


    13-3 VERB + INFINITIVE


    13-4 VERB + GERUND OR INFINITIVE


    13-5 PREPOSITION + GERUND


    13-6 USING BY AND WITH TO EXPRESS HOW SOMETHING IS DONE


    13-7 USING GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS; USING IT + INFINITIVE


    13-8 IT + INFINITIVE: USING FOR (SOMEONE)


    13-9 EXPRESSING PURPOSE WITH IN ORDER TO ANDFOR


    13-10 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH


    CHAPTER 14 NOUN CLAUSES


    14-1 NOUN CLAUSES: INTRODUCTION


    14-2 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTION WORD


    14-3 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH IF OR WHETHER


    14-4 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH THAT


    14-5 OTHER USES OF THAT-CLAUSES


    14-6 SUBSTITUTING SO FOR A THAT-CLAUSE IN CONVERSATIONAL RESPONSES


    14-7 QUOTED SPEECH


    14-8 QUOTED SPEECH VS. REPORTED SPEECH


    14-9 VERB FORMS IN REPORTED SPEECH


    14-10 COMMON REPORTING VERBS: TELL, ASK, ANSWER/REPLY


     


    APPENDIX: SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR CHARTS


    Unit A


    A-1 THE PRESENT PERFECT VS. THE PAST PERFECT


    A-2 THE PAST PROGRESSIVE VS. THE PAST PERFECT


    A-3 STILL VS. ANYMORE


    A-4 ADDITIONAL VERBS FOLLOWED BY THAT-CLAUSES


    A-5 ADDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS WITH BE + THAT-CLAUSES


    Unit B


    B-1 PHRASAL VERBS


    B-2 PHRASAL VERBS: A REFERENCE LIST


    Unit C


    C-1 PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS: INTRODUCTION


    C-2


    PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS: A REFERENCE LIST


     


     


     


     


     


     


    AZAR GRAMMAR SERIES


    Understanding And Using English Grammar,


    Fourth Edition


    Contents


    Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES


    1-1 THE SIMPLE TENSES


    1-2 THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES


    1-3 THE PERFECT TENSES


    1-4 THE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES


    1-5 SUMMARY CHART OF VERB TENSES


    1-6 SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS


    Chapter 2 PRESENT AND PAST; SIMPLE


    AND PROGRESSIVE


    2-1 SIMPLE PRESENT


    2-2 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE


    2-3 NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS


    2-4 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS


    2-5 IRREGULAR VERB LIST


    2-6 REGULAR VERBS: PRONUNCIATION OF -EDENDINGS


    2-7 SIMPLE PAST


    2-8 PAST PROGRESSIVE


    2-9 USING PROGRESSIVE VERBS WITH ALWAYS


    2-10 USING EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE


    WITH PROGRESSIVE VERBS


    Chapter 3 PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES


    3-1 PRESENT PERFECT


    3-2 HAVE AND HAS IN SPOKEN ENGLISH


    3-3 PRESENT PERFECT VS. SIMPLE PAST


    3-4 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


    3-5 PAST PERFECT


    3-6 HAD IN SPOKEN ENGLISH


    3-7 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


    Chapter 4 FUTURE TIME


    4-1 SIMPLE FUTURE: WILL AND BE GOING TO


    4-2 WILL VS. BE GOING TO


    4-3 EXPRESSING THE FUTURE IN TIME CLAUSES


    4-4 USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME


    4-5 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE


    4-6 FUTURE PERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


    Chapter 5 REVIEW OF VERB TENSES


    Chapter 6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT


    6-1 FINAL -S/-ES USE, PRONUNCIATION, AND SPELLING


    6-2 BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT


    6-3 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY


    6-4 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING THERE + BE


    6-5 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: SOME IRREGULARITIES


    Chapter 7 NOUNS


    7-1 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS


    7-2 POSSESSIVE NOUNS


    7-3 NOUNS AS ADJECTIVES


    7-4 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-5 NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-6 SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-7 BASIC ARTICLE USAGE


    7-8 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE


    7-9 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY USED WITH COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS


    7-10 USING A FEW AND FEW; A LITTLE AND LITTLE


    7-11 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: ONE, EACH, EVERY


    7-12 USING OF IN EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY


    Chapter 8 PRONOUNS


    8-1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS


    8-2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS:


    AGREEMENT WITH GENERIC NOUNS


    AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS


    8-3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS:


    AGREEMENT WITH COLLECTIVE NOUNS


    8-4 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS


    8-5 USING YOU, ONE, AND THEY AS IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS


    8-6 FORMS OF OTHER


    8-7 COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH OTHER


    Chapter 9 MODALS, PART 1


    9-1 BASIC MODAL INTRODUCTION


    9-2 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH I AS THE SUBJECT


    9-3 POLITE QUESTIONS WITH YOU AS THE SUBJECT


    9-4 POLITE REQUESTS WITH WOULD YOU MIND


    9-5 EXPRESSING NECESSITY:


    MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO


    9-6 LACK OF NECESSITY AND PROHIBITION:


    HAVE TO AND MUST IN THE NEGATIVE


    9-7 ADVISABILITY: SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTER


    9-8 THE PAST FORM OF SHOULD


    9-9 OBLIGATION: BE SUPPOSED TO


    9-10 UNFULFILLED INTENTIONS: WAS/WERE GOING TO


    9-11 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LET`S, WHY DON`T,


    SHALL I/WE


    9-12 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: COULD VS. SHOULD


    Chapter 10 MODALS, PART 2


    10-1 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENT TIME


    10-2 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PRESENT TIME NEGATIVE


    10-3 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: PAST TIME


    10-4 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: FUTURE TIME


    10-5 PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS


    10-6 ABILITY: CAN AND COULD


    10-7 USING WOULD TO EXPRESS A REPEATED


    ACTION IN THE PAST


    10-8 EXPRESSING PREFERENCE: WOULD RATHER


    10-9 COMBINING MODALS WITH PHRASAL MODALS


    10-10 SUMMARY CHART OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS


    Chapter 11 THE PASSIVE


    11-1 ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE


    11-2 TENSE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE


    11-3 USING THE PASSIVE


    11-4 THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS


    AND PHRASAL MODALS


    11-5 NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE


    11-6 COMMON NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE VERBS + PREPOSITIONS


    11-7 THE PASSIVE WITH GET


    11-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES


    Chapter 12 NOUN CLAUSES


    12-1 INTRODUCTION


    12-2 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD


    12-3 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF


    12-4 QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES


    12-5 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THAT


    12-6 QUOTED SPEECH


    12-7 REPORTED SPEECH: VERB FORMS IN NOUN CLAUSES


    12-8 USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES


    12-9 USING -EVER WORDS


    Chapter 13 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    13-1 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT


    13-2 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB


    13-3 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION


    13-4 USING WHOSE


    13-5 USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    13-6 USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    13-7 USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS


    13-8 PUNCTUATING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    13-9 USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


    13-10 USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE


    13-11 REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES


    Chapter 14 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 1


    14-1 GERUNDS: INTRODUCTION


    14-2 USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS


    14-3 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS


    14-4 GO + GERUND


    14-5 SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY -ING


    14-6 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES


    14-7 COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS


    14-8 IT + INFINITIVES; GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES AS SUBJECTS


    14-9 REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS


    14-10 REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES


    Chapter 15 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2


    15-1 INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO


    15-2 ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES


    15-3 USING INFINITIVES WITH TOO AND ENOUGH


    15-4 PASSIVE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS


    15-5 USING GERUNDS OR PASSIVE INFINITIVES FOLLOWING NEED


    15-6 USING VERBS OF PERCEPTION


    15-7 USING THE SIMPLE FORM AFTER LET AND HELP


    15-8 USING CAUSATIVE VERBS: MAKE, HAVE, GET


    Chapter 16 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS


    16-1 PARALLEL STRUCTURE


    16-2 PARALLEL STRUCTURE: USING COMMAS


    16-3 USING PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS: BOTH . . . AND; NOT ONLY... BUT ALSO; EITHER . . . OR; NEITHER . . . NOR


    16-4 SEPARATING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WITH PERIODS; CONNECTING AND AND BUT


    Chapter 17 ADVERB CLAUSES


    17-1 INTRODUCTION


    17-2 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW TIME RELATIONSHIPS


    17-3 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT


    17-4 EXPRESSING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT): USING EVEN THOUGH


    17-5 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE


    17-6 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES


    17-7 SHORTENED IF-CLAUSES


    17-8 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IF


    17-9 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE


    17-10 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS


    17-11 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF


    Chapter 18 REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES


    18-1 INTRODUCTION


    18-2 CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES


    18-3 EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF "DURING THE SAME TIME" IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES


    18-4 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES


    18-5 USING UPON + -ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES


    Chapter 19 CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, AND CONDITION


    19-1 USING BECAUSE OF AND DUE TO


    19-2 CAUSE AND EFFECT USING THEREFORE ANDCONSEQUENTLY


    19-3 SUMMARY OF PATTERNS AND PUNCTUATION


    19-4 OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT: SUCH . . . THAT AND SO . . . THAT


    19-5 EXPRESSING PURPOSE: USING SO THAT


    19-6 SHOWING CONTRAST (UNEXPECTED RESULT)


    19-7 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST


    19-8 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS: USING OTHERWISE ANDOR (ELSE)


    19-9 SUMMARY OF CONNECTIVES: CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, CONDITION


    Chapter 20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES


    20-1 OVERVIEW OF BASIC VERB FORMS USED IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


    20-2 TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE


    20-3 UNTRUE (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE


    20-4 UNTRUE (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PAST


    20-5 USING PROGRESSIVE VERB FORMS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


    20-6 USING "MIXED TIME" IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


    20-7 OMITTING IF


    20-8 IMPLIED CONDITIONS


    20-9 VERB FORMS FOLLOWING WISH


    20-10 USING WOULD TO MAKE WISHES ABOUT THE FUTURE


    APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR CHARTS


    Unit A: BASIC GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGY


    A-1 SUBJECTS, VERBS, AND OBJECTS


    A-2 ADJECTIVES


    A-3 ADVERBS


    A-4 PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES


    A-5 THE VERB BE


    A-6 LINKING VERBS


    Unit B: QUESTIONS


    B-1 FORMS OF YES/NO AND INFORMATION QUESTIONS


    B-2 QUESTION WORDS


    B-3 SHORTENED YES/NO QUESTIONS


    B-4 NEGATIVE QUESTIONS


    B-5 TAG QUESTIONS


    Unit C: CONTRACTIONS


    Unit D: NEGATIVES


    D-1 USING NOT AND OTHER NEGATIVE WORDS


    D-2 AVOIDING DOUBLE NEGATIVES


    D-3 BEGINNING A SENTENCE WITH A NEGATIVE WORD


    Unit E: PREPOSITION CMBINATIONS


    E PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH


    ADJECTIVES AND VERBS


    Unit F: THE SUBJUNCTIVE


    F THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES


    Unit G: TROㅁUBLESOME VERBS


    G RAISE/RISE, SET/SIT, LAY/LIE


     


     


    다시한번, 정말로 미국의 삶을 사랑하고, 영어성취와 영어로된 지식자산의 성취가 인생최대 소원인분, 진실로 바라고 믿으면 기적스런일도 이세상엔 있다는것을 아는분이면 더욱 환영합니다.

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